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Exceptions to the rule 'I before E except after C'
by Bob Cunningham
The AUE FAQ has an article on the i-before-e rule that attempts to
show that the rule is a good and useful one, and that the objections to it may
be swept aside. That article was written by an Englishman, the highly
respected Mark Wainwright. This page presents an alternative view, written by an American. The 'i
before e' rule is usually defined quite differently in the two communities.
Below is an excerpt, with minor editing, from an article posted to AUE
Tue, 27 Feb 1996 22:42:07 GMT. It was posted in response to a posting by a Ms
Links to key sections of the text
(For each link the relevant part of the text is intended to appear at the top of the screen. If you have a large screen this might not work properly.)
Excerpt, with minor editing, from the 1996 posting:
There was a robust thread on this topic about a year ago. I also
participated in an extended discussion of it in the ILink WordPlay Conference
a couple of years ago. Both discussions went the same way. People kept piling
on more and more qualifications to the rule until it seemed as though the rule
might eventually become longer than the list of words that obeyed it.
Extensions to the rule that have been suggested:
Early in both discussions I submitted a list
of words that were exceptions to the rule. People then took exception to some
of the words in my list, citing extensions to the rule that excluded them.
Some of the extensions were:
The rule only applies to digraphs, so words like "deity" and "science"
The rule "i before e except after c" should be extended to include
"except when said 'ay' as in 'neighbor' and 'weigh'".
The rule only applies to digraphs that have the /i:/ ('ee')
pronunciation, as in 'piece'. (Note the conflict between this and the
The rule doesn't apply to words that are recent imports from foreign
languages, such as "gneiss", "dreidel", and "enceinte".
The rule doesn't apply to the large number of plurals of words ending in
"cy" ("fallacies", "frequencies", "vacancies", ... ) because in the UK – in
traditional RP – "cies" is pronounced with the "i" of "pin", even though it
is pronounced with the "ee" of "feed" by most World-English speakers and by
younger UK speakers.
I don't think any of these extensions are
useful, with the exception of the one concerning "neighbor" and "weigh". If
the rule were to be useful it would have to be useable by all World-English
speakers, and it would have to be applicable to all words they were likely to
use. Even the "ay" extension is not very significant, because it covers only
one of the several sounds that the digraph "ei" can have.
Examples of exceptions to the rule:
Sticking for the moment to the basic
rule, "i before e except after c", which is the only version I ever heard
until a couple of years ago, here are some exceptions I've noted (I've added
five of Ms Tomlinson's words to my old list):
This list could obviously be extended by
adding more derivatives of Latin "scire", and by adding inflected forms of
some of the basic words listed. The list has "conscience", "prescient", and
"science", but there are also, for example, "omniscient" and "nescient". To
"eight" could be added "eighty", "eighteen", and "eighth". And the list could
be greatly extended by adding the plurals of all words ending in "cy".
(Is someone going to cite a word ending in
"cy" that doesn't form its plural with "cies"? I can't think of any at the
moment, given that I'm excluding capitalized words from my discussion.)
With regard to the extension added by some
people for "neighbor" and "weigh", and the fact that this is only a start
toward covering all the sounds of "ei", I have broken down my list according
to the six different sounds "ei" had in that list. In doing so I have excluded
cases where the "ei" or "ie" was not a digraph. Here is the list as so
Exceptions with "ei" or "ie" pronounced as in "species" or "seize":
For those people who insist the rule apply
only to words where the digraph has the /i:/ ("ee") sound, and excluding words
ending in "cies", here is a list of words that have at least one accepted
pronunciation with the /i:/